Gem Papakupu

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Gemology Papakupu - Gemological Institute o Cambodia Papakupu. Gem Papakupu. mihiwai Papakupu

peara pāua

tae peara Baroque whakaputaina e te mollusk univalue kai e he anga taringa-āhua moku mo tona taemaha ararewa whaea-o-peara. E kitea ēnei i roto i Amerika, Aotearoa me nga wai Japanese. Varavara spheroid, e te nuinga o papatahi ratou me te taringa āhua tooth- ranei

mimiti

ki te tangohia ake (hei tauira, he taonga) ranei te tango i roto i ranei riro pūngao i te pūngao marama (hei tauira, te marama)

tūāwhiorangi absorption

te tauira o ngā rārangi pouri poutū, here, ranei ngā wāhi (absorption whanui), kite ina te marara marama kua oti nei te tuku kitea ranei i te mihiwai ki ona wāhanga spectral a te uiui te whakamahi i te mea pēnei i te wete hihi.

Adamantine

kite umeraa

Adularescence

te āhuatanga e takatu ai kikorangi-ma Academy ranei (Schiller) taimana

Allochromatic

ina he hakari anake ano te poke iti i roto i te rauemi kōhatu te huānga whakawhiti, he allochromatic te rauemi (allo = atu; chroma = tae)

Alluvium

wā whānui nuitia whakamahia hoki putunga o toka otaota (putunga momona) e kua kawea e te wai e rere, ka whakatakotoria iho i roto i te awa, awa, waipuke mania roto ranei moenga.

amorphous

kite tioata-kore

Anisotropic

kite matua rite atatāhapa

parau tumu Archimedes

kī Archimedes parau tumu e ka rumakina te tinana i roto i te wai, na he rite ki te taimaha o te wai ngā te aki whakarunga o te wai i runga i te tinana. (E hāngai ana te faaotiraa o te mahara motuhake i te tikanga taimaha hydrostatic te i runga i tenei tumu)

kohatu horihori

tioata tangata-i hanga e kahore tauira tūturu (hei tauira, te simulants taimana: titanate strontium ko YAG)

maimoatanga Artificial

te whakarei o te ahua o te taonga i te whakawera, poke, paninga, impregnation, irradiation taiaho-kōhao ranei

kohatu huihui

tetahi kōhatu hanga ake o rua, neke atu rānei ngā wāhanga e kua timahia tauta tahi ranei ki te hanga i te kohatu kotahi

Asterism

asterism Ko te pānga whakaata, te tikanga e wha e ono-rayed ranei, i muka hāngai ranei kōwhao kaiota i roto i te kohatu kua oti nei te tapahia en cabochon ki te inclusions hāngai whakarara ki te rererangi whitiki

Aventurescence

kaha whakaata hooro o te marama i mau api ranei tawerewere o tetahi kohuke i roto i te kohatu (hei tauira, rite kite i roto i te aventurine karaihe, kiripaka aventurine, aventurine wherepāra (Ofa'i))

Tuaka o hangarite

tetahi o nga mea timatanga o te hangarite, te tuaka o te hangarite ko te raina pohewa i roto i te pokapū o te karaihe, e pā ana ki e taea te koané te karaihe kia rite ki te tapae i te taua ahua 2, 3, 4 6 ranei nga wa i roto i te kotahi te hurihanga oti (arā , noho he mata rite te tūranga rite, neke atu i kotahi i roto i te hurihanga oti)

peara Baroque

whakaingoa tono ki te peara, e rua māori, me te peu, namunamu whēwhē ranei,

e te hunga i roto i te kōhikohiko āhua

ōnewa

karā, te nuinga noa te toka ngiha extrusive, ko te, toka pai-baked pouri tino hanga ake o te wherepāra pouri me te pyroxene (ki kahore he olivine ranei). He he maha o ngā momo e Whakaröpütia rānei i runga i ngā rerekētanga i roto i te kakano, hanganga me te ihirangi kohuke

kohatu Biaxial

i roto i te pūnaha orthorhombic, monoclinic me triclinic reira e toru nga toki karaihe o roa rerekē. ka puta ata tāhapa Double i roto i te nuinga o ngā tohutohu, engari i reira ka kia e rua tuaka whatu (tohutohu hakoko kotahi) e rerekē i roto i te takotoranga i roto i ia momo kōhatu whakakai motuhake. E mohiotia kohuke no ki enei pūnaha rite biaxial. (I roto i te pūnaha orthorhombic e rite hinaaro ki te 'c' (tuaka poutū parau tumu) te toki whatu, i roto i te triclinic monoclinic me reira he kahore hononga tika ki nga toki karaihe.)

Birefringence

(Tuku ano ki rite hakoko rua / mua) birefringence ko te nui o te ata tāhapa rua o te mihiwai anisotropic faaite rite te rerekētanga i waenganui i te kuputohu atatāhapa i te wehenga mōrahi

peara Biwa

peara kore-nucleated peu (maha porotītaha Baroque i roto i te hanga i roto i te fenua Tapone ranei) pāmu huri noa i te takutai o te moana Biwa i Tapone. E tupu te peara i roto i te nui kūtai hou te wai mā te whakauru i nga whatiwhatinga o koroka iti ki te tinana o te kütai

koha

wā whānui hoki te koha e pānga te mata o te kōhatu. Kei te nuinga o te koha meinga e mahi tangata, rānei i te tapahia te kōhatu ranei i te mau i te reira i roto i te whakapaipai. Rapirapi, poka, me abrasions ko nga momo tino noa o te koha

peara namunamu

peara e hipoki i runga i tetahi taha anake e te apa nacreous i tupu i runga i te tumu i roto i te taketake whakapā ki te anga mollusk. A, no te e tangohia taua peara, te rohe i te i roto i te whakapā ki te anga he whanau o te nacre. Fakatatau ki te nuinga o te wā mānia atu tenei taha whanau, me te huna i te tautuhinga

marama

marama ko te Hui katoa te nui o te marama ä kitea hoki e te ki te kanohi i te mihiwai. Tērā e taea te faaite te reira rite te wherikotanga (ora) o te mihiwai rite whakaritea e te nui o te marama hoki ki te kanohi whakaata i te hoki o tafa'aki o te kohatu

brittleness

tautuhia brittleness te rite te ngoikore i roto i te mihiwai e ahakoa tona pakeke, hanga i haria te reira ki whati, kino (hei tauira, wera tukinotia zircon)

te kanohi o Cat

kite chatoyancy

Center o hangarite

tetahi o nga mea timatanga o te hangarite, te pokapū o te hangarite he hakari, ka ko nga mata o te karaihe tino ê ritenga he mata rite ki te tahi atu taha o te karaihe (arā, kua nga mata tetahi kanohi i he rite, te ritenga me te whakarara)

Chatoyancy

he pānga whakaata i hāngai inclusions kaiota whakarara (kanohi o ngeru) kōwhao ranei. Te pūkenga kotahi o te marama puta i koki matau ki te aronga o nga inclusions me te kitea pai te reira i raro i te puna te marama rauata kotahi ki te kohatu e kua tapahia en cabochon

Chelsea Rater tae

te mea arā o te huinga o whiriwhiringa, kei te pera hangaia e taea ai te reira e rua anake wāhanga kuiti o te tūāwhiorangi ki kia kitea i roto i taua mea: ko te whero hohonu (e tata ana 690nm) me te matomato kōwhai (e tata ana 570nm). He mea whai hua i roto i tohu i te aroaro o te Konqueror konukurahina ranei i roto i etahi kohatu, mo te rapunga o (Konqueror) tae i roto i te kohatu, me te mo te wehe etahi rauemi kōhatu i ratou mua noa. Whakamaumahara: Whakamahia rite tohu whakatūpato anake. Ko ti'aturi i runga i te tahi atu whakamātautau tohu

Chromophore

(Kaihoko valivalí). Te wahi o te rāpoi ngota e te kawenga mō te tae o te pūhui. He hakari hei wāhanga faufaa i roto i te hanganga matū i roto i te kohatu idiochromatic hei poke accidentai i roto i nga kohatu allochromatic ranei

Mārama

wā e whakamahia ana ki te whakaahua i te haere noa whanaunga i tetahi koha internai tirohanga (inclusions) ranei i roto i te kōhatu. kia hoki kia atu te whakamāramatanga ki ngā mata hē (koha) ka whakaaro te kōeke märama o te kohatu

here tae

here pakeke whakarara o te tae kite i runga i te mata o te tioata ranei i roto i nga hanganga internai o kohatu (tohu o ngā wāhanga tupu meinga e ngā rerekētanga i roto i te wātea matū, wai, te pāmahana, te pēhanga me ētahi atu āhuatanga)

Tae i roto i kohatu

he perception ataata o nga kaipōti ki e taea te wehea te marama ma (whero, karaka, kōwhai, matomato, puru, puru) me te sensation o papura kahore nei i kitea i roto i te tūāwhiorangi o te ra. fakamatala'i Tae e hue, tōpuni me te reo. ahu te tae o te mihiwai tinana te i te marama i nei te kite te reira me te te tika ki te absorption o etahi oioihia o te marama kitea. taea hoki te meinga Tae i te marara, pokanoa o te marama, me te fluorescence

taiao tae

whakawhanake taiao tae i roto i te tupu o te karaihe e tika ana ki ngä nohanga maiorooro o poke. Nga rerekētanga i roto i te te tae (here rohe ranei) e te tikanga kitea ki te whai i te mata karaihe ngā

huānga tae

absorption whiriwhiri o te marama e tika ana ki te aroaro o nga mea timatanga whakawhiti (Konqueror, konukurahina, parahi, vanadium, konupora, rino, nika, Titanium) i roto i te kohatu idiochromatic me allochromatic

kiato

kiato he tikanga rite ki nui, me te te tono tino, no te whakaatu i te tioata kahore tohu o matūriki hanganga (hei tauira, FME-baked jadeite jade)

mihiwai Composite

kite mihiwai huihui

peara wahanui

peara māwhero: peara whiwhi i te wahanui nui, i kitea atu he mollusk univalve te rohe o Florida, vanu o California ko Mexico. He tikanga māwhero (karaka māwhero ranei ma) i roto i te tae enei peara me kua āhuatanga e te kore o te paninga nacreous

Conchoidal

kite whati

Whakapā ahau tamorphic

te recrystallization o te ihirangi kohuke o toka mua-tīariari i roto i ranei e tata ana i te rohe whakapā tika ki te aroaro o magmas

māhanga Whakapā

he momo o te karaihe twinning i e ko te mau taata i roto i te whakapā haere te waka rererangi noa (te manureva māhanga). Kei te pera pā ana nga wahi e rua o te taua karaihe e ki te koané kotahi wahi i roto i te 180 ° (he hawhe tahuri) e pā ana ki te tuaka (te tuaka māhanga) ka e hanga i te haurua e rua te āhua o te karaihe takitahi. vai te mahanga whakapā i roto i ngā puka e rua: whakapā kotahi mahanga-kei hea he 2 wahi o te karaihe i roto i te raupapa whakamuri kia ki te koané kotahi hawhe te 180 ° e pā ana ki te rererangi o uru, te ahua o te karaihe noa te whiwhi; toutou, mahanga-he polysynthetic lammelar ranei momo o te karaihe twinning arā he raupapa o mahanga whakapā maha i roto i mau api rawa kikokore. E whakaritea ēnei i roto i te takotoranga ritenga ki o ratou hoa tonu (hei tauira, rite kitea i roto i te corundum me te wherepāra). A hi'o mahanga interpenetrant hoki

tino koki

te koki o te pā i reira refracted he hihi o te marama e haere nei i te optically apiapi ki reo ono te i 90 ° ki te noa (arā, awatea rawa reira te mata o te pāpāho e rua i roto i te whakapā). Note: tetahi hua atu i runga i tenei koki o te pā e meinga te hihi refracted ki te tahuri hoki ki te reo taketake i te wahi e noho i te reira i te ture o te whakaata (arā, e kia rawa ä kitea reira.)

Cryptocrystalline

(Crypto = huna). Term whakamahia ki te whakaahua rauemi arā o te maha nui o tioata iti maha iti-mōkitokito hanga he puranga ore. Ka taea e te karaihe whakahiato iti-mōkitokito puta amorphous ki te kanohi tahanga

Crystal

Ko te kākahu matū mārō ki te internai hanganga ngota whakahau me te puka waho rohe e rererangi symmetrically whakaritea (flat) mata i te karaihe

puka Crystal

ngā te puka karaihe o ail aua mata i e tatau e pā ana ki te toki crystallographic (hei tauira, koeko, poro, pinacoid, dome)

peu Crystal

E huaina nga āhuahanga karaihe (puka, me ngā āhuatanga mata) i roto i nei kohuke tikanga puta ratou peu karaihe

inclusions karaihe

He tautuhi i to ratou he āhua t koki me taha āhua tika inclusions karaihe. Kua tutaki hoki tapa pāhiwihiwi me ngā puka paku porotaka ki e tika ana ki te reabsorption o nga inclusions. (Inclusions karaihe te tikanga whakaatu ake i roto i te tauturu ki te papamuri ope, ka tirohia i raro i darkfield māramatanga. Ka taea te tirohia ratou i te whakamahi i polars whiti.)

Crystal hangarite

pā ana karaihe hangarite ki te tauira whārite o te hanganga ngota. Ko te reira i te tārua pū (tukurua ahua) o mata rite karaihe (pito, koki) e tohu i te whakaritenga ā-whakahau o te taonga.

tioata

tioata rauemi i te whakamāramatanga ko te kohuke mārō nei e whakaritea katote, ngota rāpoi ranei i roto i te ahua tika. I roto i te mahi, kei te maha whakamahia te wā ki te whakaahua matū a matou i te hanganga auau me ngā āhuatanga Anga engari e kore e tika i te āhua āhuahanga waho

tuaka Crystallographic

He rārangi pohewa o te rere roa tuatau i roto i te enei

karaihe pai i roto i te etahi ngā tohutohu tino i roto i te pā ki te hangarite o te karaihe. pūtahitanga o ratou i roto i te pokapū o te karaihe i te wāhi i huaina te takenga. (He rārangi o tohutoro i e taea ana te ruri te tawhiti whanaunga me mau hinaaro o te ngā mata ratou.)

peara peu

peara peu He ngā pearly katoa wāhanga ranei meinga

i te wawaotanga o te ti'amâraa tangata ki te roto o te mollusks hua. E pā ana tēnei ki te peara peu ranei ki waho te karihi ranei

peara whēwhē

he peara kua hanga e nei i roto i te tinana o te mollusk peara me te spheroid i roto i te āhua

whakauru Dendritic

rakau-rite ranei pūkohu-rite crack whakakī (te wahi e mi_wwow inclusions o rauemi rerekē te mea kiano i matao -. nuinga waikura rino)

Divitrify

ki te faaere o umeraa waiwai, me te transluceny. (I roto i te take o te hua karaihe i huaina jade meta - ko e te whanaketanga o te whātioatanga incipient)

Dichroscope

Kei te te mea e taea te pānga pleochroic o kohuke kōhatu hei maharatanga te dichroscope, e rua tae atarangi o te tae ranei i te wa

ttara

te ttara o te marama ko te ahua motuhake o te pokanoa o te marama i roto i nei te pakaru te marama ma ake (ritua) ki ona tae wāhanga rite te marama haere i roto i te piata iti ranei ka haere ngaru marama he mata i waenga i matū rerekē refracting (hei tauira, te tākaro o te tae i kitea i roto i te rikuri utu nui)

purara

purara Ko te wehenga (poka ara ana) o te marama ma ki te tae spectral i ata tāhapa (te tauhia o te marama) me te marama haere i roto i rua papa hehema. I roto i te kohatu kei te maha te reira ki rite 'ahi'

hakoko Double

anisotropic - kohuke whakaahua āhuatanga whatu Anga (hei tauira, i roto i te kohatu tetragonal, trigonal hexagonal, orthorhombic, ngā pūnaha, me te monoclinic triclinic)

tūāwhiorangi hiko

wā e whakamahia ana hoki te whānuitanga katoa o wavelengths o pūngao marama i te ngaru irirangi roa i roto i te wavelengths rangi tino poto

Elements o hangarite

nga mea timatanga o te hangarite ko te tikanga o te classifi-ana'ei mo nga pūnaha karaihe e whitu. He whakaaro ki te taea tatou ki te momotu me te whakaahua i te momo ngā o te āhua karaihe ratou. ngā ratou he waka rererangi o te hangarite, te tuaka o te hangarite me te pokapū o te hangarite (kite whakamāramatanga i raro i rārangi takitahi)

Eluvium

putunga eluvial ngā o te toka otaota (kirikiri) kua oti nei te horo (huarere atu) i te kamaka ope, me te noho tonu i roto i te situ (i roto i te wahi) kahore pangia transportation i roto i nga awa

emit

ki te hoatu atu i roto i ranei (hei tauira, te marama)

Enantiomorphism

te hanganga rāpoi o te kiripaka e homai ara ki te ringa tōrino tupu maui, me te tika o te kiripaka, a ki tona te vahiraa porowhita. (Note: Ko te whakanohonga o mata iti Update i nei e pinepine kitea i runga i te puka tokoni waho te tautuhi i te handedness maui matau ranei o te karaihe)

whakarei

kite maimoatanga horihori

inclusions Epigenetic

tuku inclusions nāianei. Te hunga i puta i muri i te hanganga o te karaihe ope. Ēnei ngā ngā momo o piere, me inclusions kohuke i hanga e te exsolution (hei tauira, rutile hiraka i corundum); kaua ki te whakahua hinu / opticon, me ētahi atu, i roto i te toenga whati makona kohatu.

inclusions Exsolution

kite exsolved

Exsolved

te unmixing o kohuke. Ētahi o kohuke takirua hanga rongoā totoka i pāmahana tiketike, me te riro iu i pāmahana o raro. A, no te āta whakamatao i enei kia takoha ai tetahi kohuke i roto i ka mātao te hanganga ope me kirimana, mooni pēpēhinga poke ki ngā wāhi wātea i reira whātioata ratou (hei tauira, rutile ngira (hiraka) i roto i te corundum)

ngaro

ngaro ko te ngaro o te marama hoki ki te kanohi. ai tenei te kohatu ki te puta pouri me te ngaro i roto i te billiance

ingoa tuhaa

whai kohatu faceted he karauna (runga wahi ki runga ake i te whitiki), he tepu (te tuhaa pokapū o te karauna), he whitiki (te wāhanga o te kohatu ki te paenga rahi ranei rohe waho), he teneti (te wahi raro i raro i te whitiki ). Kia rerekē te tahi atu āhuatanga katoa i roto i to ratou rahi, auau ara oraraa ranei i runga i te kāhua whakairo whakamahia rānei. Hei tauira, i roto i te fetongi (tapahia emerara) taahiraa-tapahia paerewa kohatu te culet (tuhaa iti i te turanga o te teneti) e te raina takere (rārangi roa whakawhānui haere te pokapū o te raro o te teneti)

cleavage teka

kite pekanga

whakaurua huruhuru

he waka rererangi o kōwhao miniti i te tikanga puta ano te tini o ngā wāhanga tokotoko-rite pai o intercommunicating takere (te tikanga wai makona).

kaiota

ingoa hoatu ki te rauemi i reira he ngira-āhua nga tioata Pākēha (hei tauira, papa kiripaka, nephrite jade)

inclusions tapumati

enei ai hoki kia mohiotia rite huruhuru whakaora, me te ngā o takotoranga whatunga o takere wai-ki tonu me rūrūtia Ahakoa he tapumati. Ko te tikanga i te hua o rongoā kohuke āta tātari ki te kapiti mua-tīariari i roto i te karaihe kua hanga e, me te whakaora i te moko. Te tahi atu āhuatanga i reira e nehenehe taua āhuatanga puta he i roto i te maimoatanga wera wera. He noa i roto i te rupi peratia matimati

Mutu

e pā ana mutu ki te kounga faceting o te kōhatu, me te kei i te tohu o te whiti, auautanga whakawakia, me te flatness o ia tuhaa

Fluorescence

fluorescence Ko te paheke o te marama kitea e kohatu e kua kitea ki radiations kitea e kitea ranei o te roangaru poto (pūngao teitei)

whati

whati Ko te maramara kōhikohiko break ranei i roto i te kohatu

Gem

he kohatu utu nui o te ahua tetahi, tapahia me oro mō te whakapaipai (peara ko te okotahi nui ki te titauraa muri). He kōhatu i te whakamāramatanga ko te tangata e mau ataahua, mauroa me te rarity

karāhe

Kei te tono te karaihe wā ki matū e hanga nei e te rewa, me te tautauā tere o matū kohuke, hua i roto i te hanganga o te rauemi amorphous. Ka taea e Karāhe e horihori (hangaia, i ētahi wā ki rite whakapiri) ranei atu uaua, hei tauira tūturu, tūhua (karaihe puia), tektites (whakaaro ki te hei hua pōrutu mārika)

ofa'i

ofa'i Ko te tae, toka marama ngiha urutomo, makaka-baked i hanga ake te nuinga o te kiripaka, te wherepāra me Mika

Tāhei Growth

mama me te mumura here i roto i te rārangi tika i koki e whai i te tauira hanganga o te kohuke

peu

te āhua āhuatanga i roto i te nei te kohuke tino noa puta. Peu e kore anake ngā te puka waho noa whāngai e te kohuke engari ano pānga mata angamaheni rite te pai

Hackly

kite whati

Halo whakaurua

whakaurua karaihe karapotia e te kapiti te ahotea (s). kia enei titiro hoki, ano he pūrerehua ki e rua nga parirau e ahu i te karaihe ngā (i te mea te nuinga o zircon)

pakeke

pakeke ko te mana he kohuke ki te pato'ii te rakuraku (abrasion). A hi'o atoa tauine o Moh

te whakaora kapiti

ora kapiti (kapiti cleavages ranei) i reira tomo te wai te break, a tupu hoki tahi te karaihe. E mea pinepine e mau wahi o te inu i roto i nga kōwhao me takere meinga feathery tapumati-rite ranei tauira (ētahi wā rino-poke)

hue

e pā ana hue ki te ingoa o te tae iho: te sensations spectral parakore o whero, karaka, kōwhai, matomato, puru, puru, me nga rerekētanga o enei. pā hoki Hue ki te sensation o papura (i waenganui whero me te puru), e kore nei i kitea i roto i te tūāwhiorangi o te ra

parawhenuatia

toka takoto iho, te tikanga i roto i nga wāhanga whakamutunga o te whakatōpū ngiha i te tokarewa taonga i roto i te wai, me ētahi atu matū te ahua. Nga uaua parawhenuatia o te kohuke taonga tātari rongoā i roto i ngā āputa me te kapiti i roto i toka parataiao me te puka karaihe kōwhao kapi i roto i te kamaka

Idiochromatic

ka te huānga whakawhiti ko te wāhanga faufaa i roto i te rauemi kōhatu, he idiochromatic te rauemi kōhatu (idio = whaiaro, chroma = tae)

pūtau rumaki

pūtau karaihe iti mō te kei wai e tika ana. Te parau tumu i muri te whakamahi i te pūtau rumaki ko e te taupū hakoko o te wai ko ki te kohatu, i te māmā e waiho kia kite ki te kohatu. Tata tetahi wai te huitahi, ara wai, ka tapahia ki raro whakaata mata, a ka meinga mātakitaki inclusions nui māmā

i roto i te situ

rauemi tūpono i roto i te tūranga te wahi i hanga e tuatahi reira whakatakotoria te mea ranei ki te kitea i roto i te situ (mooni i roto i te wahi)

whakaurunga

wā whānui hoki tetahi koha tirohanga ranei i roto i te kōhatu. Ka taea te wehea inclusions ki ngā momo rerekē e toru: totoka-rua tioata (hei tauira, i roto i te zircon hapaira) tioata-kore ranei (hei tauira, te karaihe tūturu i roto i te topaha) e taea. Kōwhao-enei kia hanga i roto i te tupu kohatu ope (inclusions tuatahi), i muri mai (inclusions tuarua) ranei. kia ki ai rānei momo ki tetahi huinga o te wai, hau me te mārō ranei. Te hunga ki e rua, neke atu rānei ngā wāhanga e kiia multiphase. taiao tupu ari-tae, me te twinning he tauira e rua o te tītohu tipu

pōkākā

tikanga pōkākā i raro whero, me te haamata tenei whānuitanga o radiation ki wavelengths e he kore atu te 700nm o te marama whero. Kei te tikanga mohiotia radiation pōkākā rite mahana no te hua reira he sensation o te mahana, ina wero i to tatou Hūpeke

pokanoa

te wahi e rua hihi haere i roto i te ara taua, engari i roto i te wāhanga (taahiraa), ngatahi pokanoa ki tetahi ki tetahi meinga rānei katoa ngaro o te marama ranei te mana-mua o tetahi atu ranei tae

tau pokanoa

He pānga whatu kite ina e tirohia rua kohuke atatāhapa roto mata whakarara i roto i convergent kurupae o te marama polarised enei. utu ratou mōhiohio whai hua mo te pūāhua whatu o te kohatu

mahanga Interpenetrant

he momo o te karaihe twinning i nei kua pera e rua takitahi tupu tahi e puta ratou i ngoto ki te tahi i te tahi (maha whakaputa ripeka whetū ranei kohatu)

Iridescence

iridescence ranei whakaahua tākaro o te tae te tae raupapa o ngā tae ranei whakaputaina e pokanoa ttara ranei ka kitea te marama rānei i kiriata kikokore ranei i te hanganga ahurei o te rikuri utu nui

whakakapinga Isomorphous

te whakauru o tetahi huānga matū mo tetahi o te valency taua i roto i te hanganga matū. hua tenei i roto i ngā rerekētanga i roto i te whanui i te ngā āhuatanga ōkiko o te mau melo o te raupapa. Valency: o te natura matū rite, me te pūtoro katote

Isotropic

kite putawa atatāhapa

Keshi peara peu

ka puta noa peara waimāori kore-nucleated e hanga i roto i te mollusk ina te hoki mai te reira ki te wai i muri i tango o te hua o te kore-nucleated peara peu. e kore e ki te e raruraru ki te pearis purapura moana e he tikanga nui iti enei. Te wai māori, keshi 'e anake pera-ka karanga no ratou ano e kore e tupu i te karihi tāwhaiwhai. Ētahi wā ka kīia ki rite 'peara, seedless ki te hanga i te wehewehe ki kore-nucleated. A hi'o atoa Biwa peara

peara Keshi (moana)

nga peara uri karanga Japanese, keshi '(poppies). Ko te rōpū i konei ko i waenganui i te rahi iti o te nani purapura, me te peara iti rawa fakanatula i hanga

Konoscope

he polariscope whakanoho ki te arotahi kaha convergent e tauturu whakahaere i te mātakitaki o ngā raweketia

inclusions Lamellae

meinga e te twinning polysynthetic. Ka taea e puta rite ārai raina-ika mārama ranei. kia puta hoki ratou ki te whakatau i roto i te koki (hei tauira, i roto i te corundum te wahi e tutaki tohutohu)

Lateritic oneone

rauemi whenua (tito o whatiwhatinga toka, me te otaota) matua te i ahu mai i te basait decomposed (he pai baked toka puia pouri taonga i roto i te rino me te konupora, i te mea rawa tuwhera ki te pānga o te huarere matū i roto i te āhuarangi pārūrū)

Luminescence

wā whānui hoki te hoatu atu o kitea te marama, matao 'e he taonga ki runga ki whiwhi toenga pūngao i roto i te kotahi te ahua ranei tetahi. Nga ari ngā mātāpono e rima luminescent he: chemi-luminescence (hua o te huringa matū), tribo-luminescence (whakaputaina e te waku), Thermo-luminescence (whakaputaina e wera), photo¬luminescence (whakaputaina e radiations kitea e kitea ranei o te pūngao teitei / poto roangaru) me cathodoluminescence (hua i excitation ki te kurupae i roto i te ruma irahiko korehau)

umeraa

umeraa Ko te nui me te kounga o te marama whakaata e te i te mata o te kohatu. Ko ngā whai ake e whakamahia ki te whakaahua e hiahia mihiwai: konganuku: umeraa tiketike whakaaturia e kohuke konganuku puatakore. adamantine: reflectivity mata tiketike. tangiwai: karaihe-rite umeraa angamaheni o te nuinga o kohatu. kohiwi: umeraa angamaheni o resins (ngohengohe ki iti RI). parikoriko: tata mata Hāmā (i ētahi wā ka karangatia e hinuhinu). hinuhinu: paku hinuhinu titiro hua i te tukituki o te marama i te mata microscopically taratara. pearly: umeraa o te peara / peara whaea-o-. silky: umeraa kaiota o te hiraka

Mabe (peu) peara

hiato peara namunamu peu i roto i nei kua te karihi taketake kua tangohia ka whakakapi i te heitiki iti timahia i roto i, me te wahi dome-āhua o te whaea o-peara Katahi ki tona turanga ki te taupoki ana i te rohe hapa i roto i te nacre

tokarewa

whakarewa (wai) toka

ngohengohe

tikanga ngohengohe te nehenehe o te whakawhānui āhua ranei i te patu ki te hama e te pēhanga o ngā rango ranei

Tangata-i hanga

he hua te tangata-i hanga e te whakamāramatanga ko te tangata e kua synthesized kua i roto i te taiwhanga. (Ki te synthesize he ki te hoatu tahi ranei ngā huānga ki te katoa matatini). pea te hua mutunga he mihiwai waihanga (arā, kotahi e he tauira tūturu) ranei he mihiwai tāwhaiwhai (arā, kotahi e kahore tauira tūturu)

nui

wā i whakamahia ki te whakaahua rauemi e roaa te hanganga internai tino o te karaihe, engari e kore e whakaatu i te puka āhuahanga waho. Tenei e taea te tito o ngā waeine kotahi (hei tauira, whakatika kiripaka) atu ranei karaihe (hei tauira, jadeite)

Mettalic

kite umeraa

Metamict

te wā e whakamahia ana mō te rauemi kua tukua nei e te whati-iho i te tioata ki te kāwanatanga wahi amorphous; noa i roto i te kohuke kei roto rauemi iratuki (hei tauira, momo iti zircon)

toka kāhuarau

kāhuarau (mooni, ke i roto i te puka) e hanga e toka i toka mua-ngā matua i te mahi o te pēhanga, wera, me te / te introduction o matū matū hou ranei

carat ngahuru (CT)

kotahi carat ngahuru = kotahi te rima o te karamu (0.20gr) ranei 200 milligrams (mg). He carat ngahuru ko te waeine o te taimaha mo kohatu ail me peara peu. faaite te taimaha te ki e rua nga wahi-ira, me te e maha ūpoko huaina nga ira 'ngā', arā, 1 carat ngahuru = ngā 100

karu

te mea whatu arā, o te huinga o te arotahi e hua i te mātātuhi whārahi o te ahanoa. Ētahi o te whakamahinga nui ake o te whārahinga: ako whakaurua (taiao vs. tangata-i hanga: aratau o hanganga / tupu karaihe); whakamātautau mata (kounga o te tarai (hangarite), kaupapa (tikanga o tafa'aki, firemarks); rapunga o kohatu hiato: tāututanga o maimoatanga horihori: kitea whakaraeraetanga ki te kino (hei tauira, aroaro o whati cleavage me / ranei): kitea rearua (SR vs .Dr, kia tohu hoki nui o birefringence)

mineral

he kohuke ko te taonga pararopi fakanatula puta he hanganga matū me ngā āhuatanga ōkiko e he tonu i roto i rohe kuiti. Ko tōna hanganga Ko te tikanga tioata

marama kanotahi

Ko te marama o te roangaru kotahi anake te marama kanotahi. Te marama kanotahi kōwhai paerewa whakamahia hoki inenga Refractometer kua takea mai i te rama konutai kohu. mau ngā tenei o rua ngā rārangi tukunga rawa tata mokowā, tona toharite uara ko 589.3nm

inclusions Multiphase

inclusions e kia roto wai me te hau tioata me / ranei

Nacre

he secretion whakaputaina e te koroka o te tahi mau mollusks e hanga nga papa pīataata o rua te peara me te mata i roto i te anga mollusk whaea-o-peara. ngā Nacre o pākawa waro, tioata o te kotakota me te rauemi organic i huaina conchiolin

Namometers (nm)

wae o te inenga mō te oioihia poto o te tūāwhiorangi hiko (pūngao marama). 1 nanometer = 1 millioneth wahi o te mirimita (1 / 1,000,000 nm) hei tauira, taka te marama kitea i waenganui i 700nm (whero), me te 400nm (puru)

tapahia Maori

wā e whakamahia ana hoki te kāhua o te tapahia whiriwhiri hoki te pupuri taimaha mōrahi. Enei kohatu tarai hohonu ki maha rapu teneti nui

recutting ki te tae hanganga pai

karaihe tōraro

kōwhao i roto i te kōhatu he āhua, tioata. i hanga enei kōwhao ka tupu etahi wāhi i te tere tere atu i te tahi atu wāhi, hanga, me te karapotia te kau ranei kua wahi kua rewa i te whakaurunga karaihe taketake (maha puta tioata kino mama atu i to ratou ope i raro i darkfield māramatanga)

whakauru tōraro

pea te whakaurunga kino hau wai ranei ki tonu i roto i te whakaurunga iti totoka (kite karaihe tōraro hoki) ranei

pānui tōraro

ki te kohatu i raro i te whakamātautau i runga i te refractometer he R.1 runga te whānuitanga o te mea, ka kitea kahore he mata atarangi (anake e o te wai whakapā)

Non-tioata

E mea kohuke me ētahi atu rauemi ki te hei tioata kore-amorphous ranei (mooni, kahore he ahua) ka ratou Jack he maau hanganga internai ngota me te ahua waho āhuahanga auau (hei tauira, te matū kohuke, rikuri me te karaihe, me te rauemi organic)

marama Non-ma

marama kore-ma (arā, tae) whakaahuatia i roto i ngā o tona hue (arā, te tae o tona roangaru mua-tino), waiwai (hōhonu ranei te kaha o te tae tino), me te reo (marumaru-marama ki te pouri)

Pūnoa

i roto i te tuku kōrero koki ail he mehua i te noa, he aho pohewa unu i koki matau (90 wāhi i reira patua e te hihi te mata, me te kore i te mata ano

tuaka whatu

mohiotia he aronga o te hakoko kotahi i roto i te karaihe te kore matua rite atatāhapa te rite te tuaka whatu

pūāhua whatu

kite āhua whatu

poi ahua whatu

he poi karaihe e rite rawa ki te tokotoko poto e mahi rite te arotahi te tōtā te ki te āwhina i ngā tauira pokanoa fakapapau kite haere te tuaka whatu i roto i te rauemi anisotropic

āhua whatu

natula whatu o te kohuke: kua wehea kohuke ki uniaxial, biaxial me isotropic (pūāhua whatu). E anō wehewehea kohuke Uniaxial me biaxial ki te hunga e he optically pai me te hunga e he optically kino (tohu whatu)

tohu whatu

kite āhua whatu

kiato Optical

kiato whatu ko te taonga matatini e demonstates iho i roto i te tērā ki raro o te marama. (Kite hoki ata tāhapa)

hua organic

hua organic Ko aua rauemi whakaputaina e te mahi o kaiao ora

Orient (o te peara)

te e takatu ai mata pīataata o te kōhatu peara me te whaea-o-peara. Kei te meinga e te reira na roto i te pokanoa o te marama i kiriata angiangi (te paraharaha o te paparanga nacreous) me i ttara i te taha pai o te mau papaa parau

peara Oriental

Kei te whāiti whakamahi o tenei wā ki te whakaahua peara māori kitea i roto i mollusks wai sait o te Persian Gulf. Heoi, kua kua reira te hokohoko ritenga atu whānui ki te piha haapiiraa ail tai peara tūturu rite rāwhiti

pekanga

pekanga Ko te naianei e puta haere te waka rererangi o te ngoikore, nui atu i te haere rererangi faitatau ki kanohi karaihe, ka taea ranei

anga te karaihe, pera i roto i te cleavage (te mohiotia hoki reira rite cleavage teka)

witi Pearl

te witi peara ko te wae paerewa mō te peara taimaha 1 witi = 0.25 carat (1 CT = 4grains)

peara

peara he ngā tūturu huna aitua me kahore te āwhina o tetahi ti'amâraa tangata, i roto i te roto o mollusks. E tito ratou o te taonga organic (he scleroprotein ingoa conchiolin) me o te konupūmā pākawa waro (te nuinga i roto i te puka o te aragonite) whakaritea i roto i ngā papa concentric, te waho o e he te nuinga nacreous

pearly

kite umeraa

Pegmatites

ngiha kamaka o taonga pokepoke maha kei roto kohuke onge, tae atu ki ngā tioata nui o kohatu (hei tauira, perira, chrysoberyl, te wherepāra, kiripaka, spessartite kapakara)

hīnātore

He hīnātore i roto i te pānga roa fluorescence (arā, he reira he afterglow). Kei te kua mutu te reira i te tukunga tonu o te marama kitea i muri i te puna o itoito radiation

Photoluminescence

photoluminescence Ko te wā ngātahi mō te fluorescence me te hīnātore. Ko te reira i te pānga faaite e etahi rauemi o te whakaputa marama kitea ki runga ki te wāhi ki te radiation roangaru poto (hei tauira, radiations hiko i roto i te kitea (puru), hihi katinga me x-ray wahi o te hihinga)

āta

matūriki iti kitea ano inclusions. A, no te he hakari enei i roto i tau nui kia whakaahuatia ratou ano he kapua, me te kia waimaero ai te mārama o te kohatu

putunga parawai

parawai putunga ngā o ngä nohanga mata o kohuke mahu'inga o te mahara nui motuhake (me te mauroa) i kua i hanga e huarere, o te kamaka matua me, i nuinga o te wā, muri kua kawea e awa mahi poipoi ranei

Rererangi o hangarite

tetahi o nga mea timatanga o te hangarite; he waka rererangi o te hangarite ko te rererangi pohewa e tuwhaina te tinana kia rua nga wahi kia ia wahi te te kitea (whakaata) ahua o te tahi atu wahi (arā, ia wahi ko te tauira kōaro tangohia o te tahi atu)

kirihou

he wā whānui mo te maha o organic matū tangata-i hanga (te tikanga he hāngai waerau kapia) e taea te extruded whakarewa i te wera pēhanga me / ranei ranei

Play o te tae

te tākaro o te tae wā whakaahua te raupapa o ngā tae kite ina kitea te marama i kiriata kikokore ranei i motuhia te hanganga wini whakakahokaho-rite o te rikuri utu nui. Kei te whakaputaina te reira na roto i te ttara (te pakaru ake o te marama ma ki ona tae wāhanga rite te marama haere i roto i te piata iti) i te mea he ahua motuhake o te pokanoa o te marama

Pleochroism

pleochroism (mooni, he tokomaha tae) ko te wā whānui whakamahia ki te whakaahua i te rerekē tae Anga e kia kitea i roto i etahi kohatu tae i wahia e marama (arā, kei te whiunga refracting) e tika ana ki to ratou hanganga karaihe ā-. Kei roto te reira i dichroism (e rua tae) me trichroism (tae toru)

Polariscope

te polariscope ko te mea arā, o ngā waeine e rua mo te hanga o te rererangi whakaweherua marama whakaritea ki te atamira tītaka waenganui ia ratou. Nga whakamātautau pūrere anake ranei kahore ranei he putawa whiunga atatāhapa ranei rauemi

tauhohe Polariscope

putawa tonu pouri atatāhapa-rauemi puta noa i te 360 ° tahuri. Ki te ko te rauemi i raro i riaka internai kia whakaatu reira anomalous (teka) ata tāhapa rua (ADR), te tikanga i roto i te puka o here karekare pāti kōhikohiko ranei. Double tapahia i te karaihe kotahi atatāhapa-kohatu i tūranga e wha o te marama, me ngā tūranga e wha o te pouri. kia puta māpele, tioata rauemi DR puhoi whakaurua ranei ail te marama puta noa i te 360 ° tahuri. Pokanoa ahua-i roto i te take o te rauemi mua, ki te he tika nga tikanga, me te tuhia he ahua raweketia te, e taea ano ki te whakatau mehemea he uniaxial biaxial ranei te kohatu. (-Tohu kotahi ka kitea whatu te ahua pokanoa, ko reira ka taea ki te whakatau mehemea he pai ranei kino ki te āwhina o te kohatu

tukua rawa peleti apatoko mo taua whakaaro)

Polycrystalline

kohuke i he māpele o tioata iti e kiia polycrystalline. Ka taea te kitea ēnei tioata iti whakamahi whārahinga, a ētahi wā i te kanohi anake (hei tauira, tata jade jadeite ail)

mahanga Polysynthetic

kite mahanga lammelar

Potch (rikuri noa)

rauemi Academy hapa i roto i te tākaro o te tae, titoa o ao takawai rahi taurite o reira meinga te marama ki te kia marara, kaua ki te diffracted

inclusions Protogenetic

inclusions mua-ngā:. hunga i reira i mua timata te karaihe ope ki te hanga i a i whenumi 'rite hanga' ki te muri (hei tauira, matūriki mārō me te tioata iti ahu ratou ki te kia kōhikohikotia kapi puta noa, me te e varavara e pā ana ki te karaihe o te ope hanganga

Pseudomorph

he pseudomorph (puka teka) ko te kohuke e tango te puka (āhua) o tētahi atu kohuke (taonga organic ranei) e tika ana ki te wera me te / ranei pēhanga matū ranei tukanga, hei tauira, te kanohi o te tiger (kiripaka whakakapinga o crocidolite, he kohuke kiripaka); rakau akete (he whakakapinga kiripaka o te rakau)

whakaata

whakaata Ko te hoki i te mata (ahakoa internai ranei waho) o etahi o te marama i taka i runga i taua mata. A hi'o atoa Ture a Snell

ata tāhapa

ata tāhapa ko te huringa i roto i te ahunga i roto i nei haere marama ka haere te reira i tetahi pāpāho ki tetahi o rerekē kiato whatu (anake, no te patu i te mata noa o te pāpāho e rua i 90 °). Ka rite ki haere te marama i te ono ki te reo apiapi (hei tauira, i te rangi ki te kohatu) he piko ki te noa te reira, hei kōrero rite haere te reira i te apiapi ki te reo ono kua piko i te reira atu i te noa. kiato whatu ko te taonga matatini e whakaatu ano i roto i te tērā ki raro o te marama. A hi'o atoa Ture a Snell

taupū hakoko (RI)

te RI Ko te ōwehenga ohie whakatairite i te tere o te marama i roto i te rangi ki te tere o te marama i roto i te reo i homai. Te paerewa whakamahia mō te ine taupū hakoko he hau (tino he korehau); te kupu whakaaro te RI o rangi te ki kia 1.00

kāhuarau rohe

te recrystallization o te ihirangi kohuke o toka mua-tīariari i nui pāmahana (700 ° -2000 ° C) me te i raro i te pēhanga

kiato pātahi

Kite mahara motuhake (SG)

oioihia wäriu

wavelengths wäriu Ko aua wavelengths kore whenumi e te rauemi e ngā kia homai ki a matou i te tae perc-eived o te ahanoa

kohiwi

kite umeraa

Rock

ngā te kamaka o matūriki kohuke i tupu nei ranei kua timahia tahi e tukanga matū kua herea tahi i te wera pēhanga ranei ranei

waiwai

e pā ana ki te kounga kaha ranei o te tae i kitea i roto i nga uira brilliancy o kohatu faceted mārama

Schiller

kite e takatu ai

ūiraira

fiefia; te homaitanga atu o poto, hiko kanapa o te marama

Sectile

e pā ana sectile ki te āheinga o te tihorea e te maripi ki te tarai maeneene rauemi

toka parataiao

te hunga i hanga e te hanga ki runga o te rauemi (waipara) i ahu mai i te rärangi tinana me te matū o te kamaka-ngā mua i mata o te whenua

peara uri

peara iti rawa (iti iho i te v. witi / āhua. 2mm) e kua noatia i hanga i roto i te kiko ngohengohe o te mollusk rite ki te hua o te whakaekenga o te purapura o te onepu, free hua māngi, pirinoa ranei te tahi atu tinana ke. He tikanga kōhikohiko, me te flat peara purapura, engari ka e kitea feia tawhio onge, kua wehea ratou i roto hoki te whakamahi i roto i te whakapaipai. A hi'o atoa Keshi peara

absorption whiriwhiri

absorption whiriwhiri o te marama ko te pehanga absorption o etahi wavelengths i te haere te marama ranei i roto i te ahanoa kitea atu tona mata ranei. Te tae o te hua rauemi i te toe (wäriu) wavelengths e tae i te kanohi

Sheen (Schiller ranei)

e takatu ai ko te kitea he koroirangi E ruia ana ranei (wherahia atu) pānga whakaata meinga e te marama i inclusions hanganga āhuatanga ranei i roto i te kohatu. Te wā ngā chatoyancy, asterism, adularescence, aventurescence, opalescence, iridescence (labrodrescence me te tākaro o te tae i roto i te rikuri)

Hiraka (whakaurua)

he raupapa o ngira pai whakarara (pinepine rutile)

hakoko Takitahi

tuku ano ki rite isotropic. kohuke e whakaatu nga āhuatanga whatu taua i roto i ngā tohutohu ail (hei tauira, i roto i te kohatu te pūnaha pūtoru me te rauemi amorphous)

Ture o Snell hakoko

ka haere te hihi marama i tetahi reo ki tetahi reira te vai te ōwehenga tino i waenganui i te aho o te koki o te pā, me te aho o te koki hakoko. Te hihi maiki, te hihi refracted me te noa (i te wāhi o te pā) he ail i roto i te manureva taua. Te ōwehenga tamau i waenganui i te koki o te pā me te hakoko o tetahi pāpāho e rua i roto i te whakapā whatu i huaina e Snell te taupū hakoko (RI)

peara Moana ki te Tonga

peara peu Rapa, peu i roto i te tio peara hiriwa-kukutai ki te diameter o 12 noa 16mm ranei. roaa enei peara ma nui te ingoa Moana Tonga no te mea i hua tuatahi ratou e nga Hapanihi i Microne-sia ko Indonesia. I teie mahana, e atu pinepine hua enei peara i roto i Ahitereiria me Burma, ki Indonesia, nga Philippines, Papua New Guinea, me te Thailand rite puna iti nui. Ki te rā i reira e kore kua he kohinga angitu horihori küao o nga tio peara hiriwa-kukutai, i te tikanga e he iti te supply o nga tio whaea me utu fakatatau tiketike

mahara motuhake (SG)

te SG whanaunga ranei mātotoru o te rauemi ko te ōwehenga i waenganui i te taimaha o te taonga, me te taimaha o te rōrahi rite o te wai parakore i 4 ° C (kiato mōrahi o te wai) me i te pēhanga paerewa kōhauhau. Kei te pā SG ki te hanganga matū o te rauemi me te pai ano te hononga ā-ngota (i roto i te pānga, te awe i te reira e kore anake e te taimaha ngota o te ngā huānga wāhanga engari ano hoki te tikanga i roto i nei i te ngota e whakanohoia tahi)

wete hihi

te mea e wehe he hihi o te marama ki ona wavelengths Pākēha tae tūāwhiorangi ranei i te tikanga o te poro ttara ranei pae kupenga. Te wete hihi e āhei ki tetahi kite ai ngā wāhanga motuhake e riro (rārangi here ranei) ranei wāhi (absorption whānui) o te marama ma i te mihiwai e marara horahanga i nga wavelengths wäriu i kua tuku ranei kitea i te kohatu i raro whakamātautau ranei (kaua ail whakaatu kohatu e tātaritanga te spectrums hihinga me kore ail kitea engari kia tohu here absorption kaihoko tae te aroaro o etahi huānga ranei)

Splintery

kite whati

hangarite

pā hangarite ki te auautanga toenga ranei o te āhua o te kōhatu i roto i te tūranga kanohi-ake e rua, me te i roto i te kōtaha

inclusions Syngenetic

inclusions nāianei arā, o matū i te aroaro nei i te wa ano i rite te crystai ope (hei tauira, te totoka kohuke; wai i roto i te kōwhao me kapiti te whakaora i: ropu zonal; inclusions wai:. tohu o te tupu pērā i taiao tae me te hanganga māhanga He pinepine te whakahau intergrowth waenganui i nga inclusions syngenetic me ope karaihe kia kia whanau i te rua i te hononga hanganga faaterehia e te ture crystallographic

kohatu waihanga

he hua waihanga e te hanganga matū taua, hanganga ngota, me te āhuatanga ōkiko rite tona tauira tūturu (hei tauira, emerara waihanga, corundum waihanga, me ētahi atu)

te kaha

te kaha taikaha ranei ko te ātete o te kōhatu ki te whawhati ngatatatata ranei. Kei te pā te reira ki te kaha kohuke ki te takanga mai puranga kahore tauwhatinga o te hanganga internai. Ngā tutaki ki roto i tenei whakaaro ngā pakarukaru, sectile, ngohengohe, hangore, me te rapa

kiriata angiangi

tirohia i raro i te marama kitea enei kiriata kikokore i te ahua pīataata angamaheni o te kahu angiangi o te hinu i runga i te wai i te mata taemaha o te mirumiru hopi ranei

whakaurua e toru wāhanga

he kōhao wai-ki tonu kei roto i te mirumiru me te karaihe

Tone

pā āhua ki te hanga noa whanaunga pouri ranei mohio (ranei o te hue o ranei ma ki mangu)

whakaata ā-Tapeke

Puta katoa whakaata ā-i reira te hoki mai te, ray o te poheraa marama i te apiapi ki te reo ono i te koki nui atu te tino koki ki te reo apiapi te wahi pupuri reira nga ture o te whakaata

taikaha

kite te kaha

huānga tauwhiro

whakaingoa tono ki etahi huānga konganuku nei e tika ana ki to ratou hanganga ngota, whakapehapeha te absorption whiriwhiri o te marama i roto i te kohatu idiochromatic me allochromatic. Ko ratou Konqueror, konukurahina, parahi, vanadium, konupora, rino, nika me te Titanium

tare

ki te haere (hei tauira, marama) i tetahi reo ki tetahi; ki te tonoa atu (hei tauira, he tohu) ranei unga i runga i (e..g., i te tangata tetahi ki tetahi)

Pūataata

te haere noa ki nei haere te marama tuku i roto i te kohatu ranei. e hoatu nga nekehanga rerekē o te mārama rite: mārama (TP) whakaata -a ahanoa mārama, me te absorbs he nui iti o te marama i taka ki runga ki taua mea, engari ka taea te nuinga ki te haere i roto i. He ahanoa tirohia i roto i te kohatu puta mārama, me te motuhake. Sub-mārama (S-TP) -ko nui o te marama tuku te roto i te kohatu, engari e kore e taea te kitea anake te whakahuahua o te ahanoa ki te atu taha o te kohatu. Sub-translucent (S-TL) anake te nui iti rawa o te marama ka taea e haere i roto i te kōhatu i te taha kikokore. Puatakore (0) -ail o te marama i taka ki te ahanoa puatakore te rānei kitea whenumi ranei. haere kore marama i roto i te rauemi, ara i taha kikokore.

whakaurua Treacle

he wera-poipoi roiled ranei pānga-wisps me mania o tae

Twin karaihe

he karaihe māhanga ko te karaihe titoa e te o rua haurua o te karaihe kotahi ranei e rua, neke atu rānei tioata o te taua momo e whai he hononga crystallographic tika ki tetahi ki tetahi me kua tupu tahi i roto i te tikanga hangarite (kite mahanga whakapā me mahanga interpenetrant)

whakaurua e rua wāhanga

he kōhao wai-ki tonu kei roto i te miru he karaihe ranei

Katinga (UV)

hihi katinga te tikanga i tua atu puru. Tenei whānuitanga o radiation haamata ki wavelengths e he poto atu i te 400nm o te marama puru

kohatu Uniaxial

i roto i te hexagonal, ngā pūnaha karaihe trigonal me tetragonal reira he kotahi tuaka whatu (aronga o te hakoko kotahi): kohuke no ki enei pūnaha e mohiotia rite uniaxial (i roto i te kohatu uniaxial he whakarara ki te tumuaki poutū 'c' tuaka te tuaka whatu)

pūtau Unit

te pūtau wae o te hanganga karaihe e ko te wahi iti o te karaihe e tonu roaa te āhuatanga motuhake o te karaihe kiia te he pūtau kōwae. Ko te tikanga i roto i nei e tāpae te pūtau kōwae maoritia whaea whakatau te ahua waho o te karaihe

whakauru arai

kite huruhuru whakaurua

marama Ari

te marama kitea ko te ahua o te pūngao marama e homai ara ki te sensation o aroaro. Ko kitea ki te kanohi tangata rite te marama i tetahi roangaru o te radiation hiko e he āhua i waenganui i 400nm me 700nm

tangiwai

kite umeraa

roangaru

tautuhia te roangaru te rite te tawhiti i waenganui i rua tihi karapīpiti o taua ngaru

parikoriko

kite umeraa

marama White

marama ma (marama whakauru) te tito o te ranunga āhua rite o nga tae katoa wavelengths ranei e hanga ake te tūāwhiorangi kitea (whero, karaka, kōwhai, matomato, puru, me te puru). Te tae o te marama rerekē ki tei runga i te roangaru. whai ngaru Whero nga wavelengths roa rawa (700 + nm) me faaiti tenei i roto i te tūāwhiorangi ki puru wavelengths, e whai i te poto (400nm-e pā ana ki 1 / 4 te roa o nga hihi whero)

matapihi

wāhi mārama o te kaha tae iti meinga e leakage marama e faati'a te whakamārama i muri i te kohatu ki te kitea (tai'o-i roto i pānga)

āwheo zircon

kite whakaurunga āwheo

striae zonal

kite ropu tae

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